Technology Acceptance Models

The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is an [information systems] theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with a new software package, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it, notably:

o Perceived usefulness (PU)
“The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance”.

By Fred Davis

o Perceived ease-of-use (EOU)
“The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort”.

By Fred Davis

The technology acceptance model is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of reasoned action (TRA) in the literature. It was developed by Fred Davis and Richard Bagozzi. TAM replaces many of TRA’s attitude measures with the two technology acceptance measures, ease of use, and usefulness. TRA and TAM, both of which have strong behavioral elements, assume that when someone forms an intention to act, that they will be free to act without limitation. In the real world there will be many constraints, such as limited ability, time constraints, environmental or organizational limits, or unconscious habits which will limit the freedom to act.

Theory of Reasoned Action

TRA posits that individual behavior is driven by behavioral intentions where behavioral intentions are a function of an individual’s attitude toward the behavior and subjective norms surrounding the performance of the behavior.

Attitude toward the behavior is defined as the individual’s positive or negative feelings about performing a behavior. It is determined through an assessment of one’s beliefs regarding the consequences arising from a behavior and an evaluation of the desirability of these consequences. Formally, overall attitude can be assessed as the sum of the individual consequence x desirability assessments for all expected consequences of the behavior.

Subjective norm is defined as an individual’s perception of whether people important to the individual think the behavior should be performed. The contribution of the opinion of any given referent is weighted by the motivation that an individual has to comply with the wishes of that referent. Hence, overall subjective norm can be expressed as the sum of the individual perception x motivation assessments for all relevant referents.

Algebraically TRA can be represented as B ≈ BI = w1AB + w2SN where B is behavior, BI is behavioral intention, AB is attitude toward behavior, SN is subjective norm, and w1 and w2 are weights representing the importance of each term.

The model has some limitations including a significant risk of confounding between attitudes and norms since attitudes can often be reframed as norms and vice versa. A second limitation is the assumption that when someone forms an intention to act, they will be free to act without limitation. In practice, constraints such as limited ability, time, environmental or organizational limits, and unconscious habits will limit the freedom to act. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) attempts to resolve this limitation.

Theory of Planned Behavior

TPB posits that individual behavior is driven by behavioral intentions where behavioral intentions are a function of an individual’s attitude toward the behavior, the subjective norms surrounding the performance of the behavior, and the individual’s perception of the ease with which the behavior can be performed (behavioral control).

Behavioral control is defined as one’s perception of the difficulty of performing a behavior. TPB views the control that people have over their behavior as lying on a continuum from behaviors that are easily performed to those requiring considerable effort, resources, etc.

Although Ajzen has suggested that the link between behavior and behavioral control outlined in the model should be between behavior and actual behavioral control rather than perceived behavioral control, the difficulty of assessing actual control has led to the use of perceived control as a proxy.

Unified Theory of Acceptance and use of Technology

The UTAUT aims to explain user intentions to use an IS and subsequent usage behavior. The theory holds that four key constructs (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions) are direct determinants of usage intention and behavior. Gender, age, experience, and voluntaries of use are posited to mediate the impact of the four key constructs on usage intention and behavior. The theory was developed through a review and consolidation of the constructs of eight models that earlier research had employed to explain IS usage behavior (theory of reasoned action, technology acceptance model, and motivational model, theory of planned behavior, a combined theory of planned behavior/technology acceptance model, model of PC utilization, innovation diffusion theory, and social cognitive theory). Subsequent validation of UTAUT in a longitudinal study found it to account for 70% of the variance in usage intention.


The recent development of information technology applications that target highly specialized individual professionals, such as physicians and lawyers, has proliferated substantially. Considering the rapid growth of these innovative technology applications that target individual professionals, it is important to examine the extent to which existing theories can explain or predict their technology acceptance. In this vein, the current study represents a conceptual replication of some previous model comparison by re-examining prevalent theoretical models in a healthcare setting that involves different users and technologies. Specifically, this study empirically tests the applicability of three theoretical models: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and a decomposed TPB model that is potentially adequate for the targeted professional context. Our investigative focus is the extent to which each model can explain physicians’ acceptance of telemedicine technology.

Personal Spy Technology Applications – Various Spy Equipments and Surveillance Products!

Night vision is one of the most underused and misunderstood products on the market. Its applications are far reaching and can be used for many private home security solutions.

There are two different types of night vision available from spy equipment vendors, and four different types overall. They are 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Generation. Only the 1st and 2nd generation are available to the general public. The main difference between 1st and 2nd generation is that 1st generation is a lower quality of picture, while the 3nd generation though anywhere between 500$-1000$ more expensive, has a much improved picture and sharper image that makes it worth the investment.

Computer Software is another area that spy equipment vendors provide items in. Everything ranging from key logging software to parental controls, to things like remote PC viewing. This viewing software allows the user to remotely view everything going on in the target PC. Things like websites visited, time spent on the computer and various other activities while on the PC. When purchasing these items you need to keep the legal ramifications on your mind. Consult with the vendor for advice or with your local law enforcement to know your local laws before you engage in the use of this software.

DVR Stand alone kit with 4 cameras is another good item to protect your household or business. You can place the 4 cameras in very well hidden areas that provide cover for the camera but a clear view for the camera to record the area and ensure the safety. You can receive remote notifications by email to alert you if an alarm has been triggered. They come with 4 different sensitivity settings that can allow for a tailored fit to your personal or business needs.

Again with all of these products and the ones not mentioned, you have to beware of how you plan on using them and ensure not only that they are used properly and maintained properly, but you need to ensure they are used legally. Also consider that although some people may understand their usage and applications, others may be offended and you may cause issues should they ever discover their usage. If you are unsure of the legality of the usage, look up online the local laws for your area, or even send some requests out to your local police station or city hall. It’s always better to be safe then sorry!

The Role of Technology For Successful Telemarketing

For business organizations in Singapore, B2B lead generation is an all-important aspect to keep their businesses alive and attain growth. It is the force that drives them to improve their strategies and come up with better ideas to attract new prospects. However, there are just some Singaporean firms that could not properly do lead generation while actively focusing on other equally significant functions such as product or service development, client relations, customer service, etc. Failure in B2B lead generation can compromise the entire business operation.

This is one of the many reasons why more and more companies in Singapore have sought help from telemarketing service providers. Over the recent years, many Singaporean firms have developed the enthusiasm to outsource their lead generation services to offshore providers. They have concluded, after thorough discussions and brainstorming, that outsourcing produces results far better than what they could have done on their own.

However, BPOs come in large population these days, making it challenging for firms in Singapore to decide which outsourcer is best for them. Some firms claim that they offer very low rates while others boast the names of business giants that they have served. But, which is which? How can a Singaporean business pick the right one?

In choosing a partner, there is a need for an in-depth evaluation. One of the areas where assessment should be focused on is the technology being used by a call center. This, however, depends on many factors, like the size and purpose of the outsourcer, the location and the supported channels (emails, fax machines etc,). For the record, a plethora of technology, applications and tools are needed to operate a call center effectively. Enumerated below are some of the much-needed technologies.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) application. This is the most efficient tool for creating and maintaining healthy relationships with sales leads and clients. It creates a bond between the telemarketers, the prospects and the clients. For the sales leads, CRM is useful in gathering relevant information which is used to address the concerns of the sales leads. On the other hand, CRM helps clients in Singapore to know the current progress of the program, hear call recordings made by the agents, learn updates, track reports, and communicate with the people who handle the program.

Campaign management system. CMS is a must-have for all outbound call centers. This is so because this application lets the telemarketers know whom to contact, or to supply with a list of telephone numbers or email contacts. An advance CMS permits callers to record how each sales prospect has replied to a given campaign.

Call recording systems. All contact centers are obligated to possess call recording systems. This set of recording devices captures calls made to sales prospect which allows Singaporean clients to assess agents’ performance. A more sophisticated call recording system does not only capture calls but also related screens utilized to serve the sales lead. The most advanced type, on the other hand, records all types of interactions, aside from phone calls.

Workforce management system. As the name suggests, this application forecasts the volume of calls and other kinds of interaction in a given day. This helps team leaders and telemarketing firm’s managers to schedule the number of agents to hire new employees in order to meet projected output, considering other factors such as training classes, agent breaks, vacations, etc.

Computer-telephony integration. This is a system that allows interactions on a computer and telephone to be integrated. It has even expanded to the integration of all channels like email, fax, web and voice with computer systems.

Successful telemarketing can only be achieved when every element is functioning well. When companies in Singapore have made it clear to outsource their lead generation services through telemarketing, it ought to check carefully the competencies of a chosen service provider. This, then, calls for a meticulous yet fair evaluation of an outsourcer’s acquired technology.

The Future of Procurement Technology

Research has shown that leading companies today employ extensive use of procurement technology for purposes of driving high performance. Procurement masters do this in the following ways:

  • Provide heavy support to their source-to-pay process via a complete suite of integrated technology modules.
  • Achieve “one version of the truth” through the harmonization of master data across systems and consistent maintenance procedures.
  • Have access to highly visible data so as to enable full reporting.
  • Boast a full portfolio of supplier integration technology.

Today’s procurement masters therefore enjoy significant payoffs, delivering 2.5 times more value for every dollar spent in procurement, in comparison to average performers. But what lies ahead with regards to procurement technology benefits of the future? Take a look.

Innovative Technology

With the economy still in recovery, business focus has shifted to technology that is easy to deploy and which delivers a quick and tangible ROI. Granted, technology today typically focuses on the manufacturing element of the enterprise, which is where the money is made. Nevertheless, procurement remains at the heart of every organization; therefore innovation in technology can help boost procurement engagement ultimately leading to a reduction in costs and increase in savings.

Increased Connectivity

Procurement managers of the future will increasingly need to adapt to the convergence of work and play. Consumer-style expectations will persist in their migration into the workplace with access via the traditional PC/ browser-based platforms being superseded by apps. Procurement technology applications will shift their focus to engagement and usability so as to drive efficient processes and fantastic compliance. Additionally, as with the internet, technology is set to become even more connected over time.

Intelligent, Multi-Dimensional Data

Business procurement is set to resemble consumer procurement platforms such as eBay and Amazon. This will be achieved through technology that is more intelligent and which utilizes multiple dimensions of data to steer spending behavior towards the most attractive deals. In this way, procurement managers will be able to make purchasing decisions that are quick and better informed.

An efficient and integrated technology foundation is critical for achieving such results for the business of the future. This will also require thought leadership in procurement and sourcing, specialized skills for SAP procurement and global client experience to assist an organization in the maintenance of a reliable, high quality supply base while reducing costs. It is such a foundation that will provide your business with a procurement technology framework that will power high performance for years to come.