Semiconductor Technology – Applications and Operations Behind Different Types

Semiconductors will not function if they do not possess electrical conductivity. The system takes place in the conductor’s connection with the insulator. This is perhaps the most basic among a list of assumptions behind semiconductor technology. But since this is very basic, there are yet other principles to take note of. In this regard, it pays to take a glimpse of the semiconductor types that are significant in some enterprises.

Semiconductors are very essential in technological advancements especially in mobile phone, computer, television and radio production. They are also highly crucial in production of transistors. In understanding more about semiconductor technology, it pays to take a look at its four types.

First kind of semiconductor – intrinsic

An intrinsic semiconductor is sometimes known as the purest of all semiconductor types. It contains thermal materials that have the ability of lessening covalent bonds as they freed electrons. Part of its work is to go to a solid mass for the support of electric component conductivity. In situations where the covalent bonds lose their electrons, electrical properties of the semiconductor will get affected.

Second kind of semiconductor – extrinsic

Aside from the intrinsic semiconductor there is also the extrinsic semiconductor. When compared to the intrinsic version, the semiconductor technology for extrinsic semiconductors rely upon doped or added particles. With this fact, it is also known as a doped semiconductor. The additional particles play a vital role in transforming the conductivity characteristics of the electrical component.

Here is one concrete sample for extrinsic semiconductors. Silicon, the most usual semiconductor, may be used in order to come up with a gadget. Each atom of silicon allocates four categories of valence electrons through a process known as covalent bonding. If silicon will be substituted by five valence electrons of phosphorous, four of the covalence electrons will be put together while the remaining one will be free.

Categories of extrinsic semiconductors – N-type and the P-type

Wrapping up the four classifications of semiconductors are the two sub-classes for extrinsic semiconductors. One is tagged as the N-type whereas the other is the P-type. The N-type is comprised of electrons and holes. The former plays as majority carriers while the second plays as minority carriers. This signifies that the electron’s concentrations are more than that of the holes.

As for the P-type semiconductor, it acts opposite functions with that of the N-type. To explain further, the P-type semiconductor technology contains holes that play as majority carriers while the electrons become minority role players. In some instances though, there are systems that follow a P-N Junction. This takes place when a P-type semiconductor is found at one side of the system even if the N-type was already made in the other side.

Distributed Generation Technologies – Applications and Challenges

The practice of installing and operating electric generating equipment at or near the site of where the power is used is known as “distributed generation” (DG). Distributed generation provides electricity to customers on-site or supports a distribution network, connecting to the grid at distribution level voltages.

The traditional model of electricity generation in the United States, which may be referred to as “central” generation, consists of building and operating large power plants, transmitting the power over distances and then having it delivered through local utility distribution systems.

The practice of installing and operating electric generating equipment at or near the site of where the power is used is known as “distributed generation” (DG). Distributed generation provides electricity to customers on-site or supports a distribution network, connecting to the grid at distribution level voltages. DG technologies include engines, small (and micro) turbines, fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems.

Distributed generation may provide some or all of customers’ electricity needs. Customers can use DG to reduce demand charges imposed by their electric utility or to provide premium power or reduce environmental emissions. DG can also be used by electric utilities to enhance their distribution systems. Many other applications for DG solutions exist.

With existing technology, every industrial or commercial facility including factories, campuses, hospitals, hotels, department stores, malls, airports, and apartment buildings can generate enough electricity to meet its power needs under normal conditions, as well as have back-up power during a blackout.

Distributed generation systems can provide an organization with the following benefits:

* Peak Shaving;

* On-site backup poer during a voluntary interruption;

* Primary power with backup power provided by another supplier;

* Combined load heat and power for your own use;

* Load following for improved power quality or lower prices;

* To satisfy your preference for renewable energy

In conjunction with combined heat and power (CHP) applications, DG can improve overall thermal efficiency. On a stand-alone basis, DG is often used as back-up power to enhance reliability or as a means of deferring investment in transmission and distribution networks, avoiding network charges, reducing line losses, deferring construction of large generation facilities, displacing expensive grid-supplied power, providing alternative sources of supply in markets, and providing environmental benefits.

Power generation technologies have evolved significantly in the past decade, making DG much more efficient, clean, and economically viable.

Substantial efforts are being made to develop environmentally sound and cost-competitive small-scale electric generation that can be installed at or near points of use in ways that enhance the reliability of local distribution systems or avoid more expensive system additions. Examples of these distributed resources include fuel cells, efficient small gas turbines, and photovoltaic arrays.

This report on Distributed Generation Technologies takes an in-depth look at the industry and analyzes the various technologies that contribute to distributed generation in today’s age. The report focuses on these technologies through case studies, examples, and equations and formulas. The report also contains analysis of the leading countries actively promoting distributed generation.

Fitting Technology Into a Unit Plan

Like many teachers these digital days, you probably try hard to integrate technology in your classroom. But sometimes, when you’re contemplating a unit, you might wonder where and how to best fit the technology in. Do you have to just rely on the old-fashioned video vaguely related to the topic somewhere at the end of the unit as a sort of reward for getting through all the hard work and congratulate yourself on managing to integrate technology in your classroom? Well, not quite.

If you want to integrate technology in your classroom, you have to consider all five stages of a unit. Each aspect allows technology to be integrated, but it’s not the same sort of technology at each step.

Stage One: Initial Interest

In this first stage, a teacher should introduce the topic to be studied to the class. The teacher’s goal at this stage is to find out what students know already – if you’re researching Ancient Greece and one of your students has an archaeologist as a parent and has had two trips to Knossos in the last five years, it pays to know this! – and to creating interest in the topic. From this initial session or sessions, the teacher can help students develop questions to answer in the course of research.

Technology to use at this stage: Mind-mapping and brainstorming software can be used to create and organize what is already known, and to highlight links between ideas within the topic. While brainstorms are often done on paper, software packages create a more attractive package. If you want to integrate technology in your classroom by using one of these applications, Inspiration is by far the best. Videoclips – short ones can also be used at this stage to awake interest and to launch the topic.

Stage Two: Research

Once you have defined your questions to be researched (or your students have), then it’s time to research those topics. This is the easiest area to integrate technology in your classroom in.

Obviously, the internet is the most significant technological application here. Your task will be to teach the students the most efficient use of search engines, and how to sort good sources of information from bad. However, most teachers find it a challenge to make students move on from just using web pages. Other options include online video clips (e.g. YouTube) and emailing researchers in the area of study. Don’t be shy about this last option. If you were a researcher, wouldn’t you be flattered if a grade school student considered you an expert on the topic? Also consider using ordinary videos, films and TV programs.

Stage Three: Formatting

This is where students start organizing what they’ve learned into a coherent whole. This “rough notes” stage of the process was traditionally done with pen and paper (and still is, even professionally) but you can integrate technology in your classroom here, too.

Graphic organizer (e.g. Inspiration) and word processors.

Stage Four: Fine-tuning

Here, your students organize their work into a final presentation. Here, you should think beyond just the posters and papers of the past – you can integrate technology in your classroom in how your students present their work.

Word processors and publishing software are obvious choices at this stage. PowerPoint presentations are other options. Students can also make use of image manipulators such as PhotoShop or Corel Draw to create images to accompany their project. Remember to teach them about spellcheckers – and that spellcheckers aren’t 100% accurate.

Stage Five: Grand finale

At this stage, students present their work, either to the class – or the whole world.

If you are serious about getting technical, then how about getting your students to upload their projects online, either with the use of a webcam and uploading to YouTube, or by creating a webpage displaying what they’ve learned. You will, of course, have to teach the related skills here, such as html and film editing.

All technology has its advantages and its disadvantages when used in the classroom, and it’s easy to get it wrong when you’re starting. If you want to avoid “The 7 Biggest Mistakes Teachers Make Using Video in the Classroom” and start experiencing the benefits of using video effectively in your classroom, your next step is to download a free copy of “Biggest Mistakes Teachers Make” right now.

Business Intelligence – Wide Array of Applications and Technologies

Business intelligence refers to a widespread category of technologies and applications for the purpose of accruing, stocking up, evaluating, and accessing vital data for improved business processes. The applications of Business Intelligence encompass diverse activities such as decision support systems, reporting and query, online analytical processing, data mining, statistical analysis, forecasting, benchmarking, and text mining.

The types of applications are an integral part of operations for an organization in order to make them mission oriented. They are basically user oriented and are initiated centrally. This innovative technology provides insight and understanding into current, historical, and futuristic aspects of one or many business operations.

These system are sometimes also referred to as ‘decision support system’ because of its ability to facilitate deft decision-making. Highlighting the basic difference between Business Intelligence and competitive intelligence, although they both sustain decision making, it can be said that Business Intelligence is about using technologies, applications & processes while competitive intelligence pertains to assembling, analyzing and dissemination of information.

Here are mentioned some of the common tools of Business Intelligence that are relevant for their implementation –

Excel – This is a common and the most widely used tool.

It is very cost friendly and can be used even by a novice in a simple and hassle free manner. Another reason of its popularity is its user friendliness. It is best utilized for financial business processes and for keeping track of goals and targets.

OLAP Tool – This tool is primarily used at advanced level. This tool enables users to make comparative analysis between various dimensions of data and database.

Data-mining tool – This tool finds its application where some correlation needs to be found and established between multiple factors.

Benefits of Business Intelligence Tools

  • Leveraging of an organization’s operational data to have a competitive edge over competitors.
  • Increase in sales with the help of factual Business Intelligence tools.
  • Accruing lucrative profits by means of aiming towards profitable processes.
  • Building a better customer relation and retaining them life long
  • .

  • Better accuracy of sales’ prediction and timely deliverance of products and services.
  • Achieving the desired budget level.
  • Reduction of low yielding business activities pertaining to sales and production.
  • Deploying better promotional and advertising campaigns.
  • Predicting prospective behavior of clients and customers.

These are some of the primary benefits of Business Intelligence that provide considerable leverage business and its various processes. They can be certainly applied to carve a deeper niche for your business in the market, amongst other contemporaries.